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6 days ago
Proud supervisor moment, my PhD student @Mitha21519 has just presented her PhD defense. Join me in congratulating Dr Asmita Singh šŸ„³šŸŽ‰ https://t.co/iQ0VG9whPu SCALExperiment photo
4 months ago
Entries close on Monday! Donā€™t miss out on your chance to submit and win over R2000 in prizes #whatpolarscientistsdo #howAPECSSAdoscience https://t.co/rKhfi2kQpa
4 months ago
Donā€™t forget to submit your video to our competition! #whatpolarscientistsdo #howAPECSSAdoscience Check out our bio for more information. https://t.co/BYykXiUORX
4 months ago
APECSSA invites you to submit a short video to showcase #whatpolarscientistsdo and #howAPECSSAdoscience.Ā Your video could be featured on the various APECSSA social media platforms and you stand a chance to win your share of over R2000 worth in prizes!Ā Entries close 4 October 2021 https://t.co/v5SiPibIT3
6 months ago
Thank you to the speakers from the final session of #SCALEworkshop, where we had talks on whales, ice modelling, ocean biogeochemistry and atmospheric chemistry.
We also had updates from Chief Scientist @MarcelloVichi on the future opportunities for South African ocean sciences. https://t.co/QZV0Ce4ugO
SCALExperiment photo
PROPOSED RESEARCH PLAN
WINTER CRUISE
  • 3 weeks: July 2019
  • GoodHope line to ice edge
  • Deep CTDs for hydrography and trace elements complying with minimum requirements for GO-SHIP & GEOTRACES
  • Obtain winter seasonal boundary conditions
  • Deploy gliders in Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ)
  • MIZ process study and ice sampling
SPRING – SUMMER CRUISE
  • 6 weeks: Oct – Dec 2019
  • GoodHope line to ice edge
  • Interdisciplinary platform to sample ocean surface and interior through a CTD transect and 3 experimental sites coinciding with glider stations
  • Deep CTDs for hydrography and trace elements (GEOTRACES compliant)
  • MIZ process study and ice sampling
LATE SUMMER CRUISE
  • December 2019 – February 2020
  • Two additional transects of GoodHope line during logistics voyages with underway focus
  • Retrieve and calibrate gliders
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Figure: The integrated (ship-glider) observational approach for SCALE showing the location of the GoodHope line and three representative seasonal glider experimental sites in the SAZ, PFZ and MIZ.

The seasonal cycle is an important mode of variability that couples the physical mechanisms of climate forcing to ecosystem response in phytoplankton diversity, primary production and carbon export.

Model simulations tend to overestimate the magnitude and miss the timing of the Southern Ocean seasonal cycle. This drives the need for more biogeochemical data sets that address the problem of model biases; firstly to identify them and secondly to characterize the associated mechanisms that will allow improved projections.

SCALE (Southern oCean seAsonaL Experiment) is a novel interdisciplinary experiment that spans seasonal to decadal time scales in the south east Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. SCALE contributes both long-term and experimental observations towards a greater understanding of the role of fine scale dynamics in shaping the phasing and magnitude of the Southern Ocean seasonal cycle through novel integrated ship and robotics experiments.

SCALE HYPOTHESIS

Changes in seasonal modes of variability are a more sensitive indicator of long-term trends than changes in the magnitude of annual means.

KEY RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  1. Advance our understanding of the climate sensitivity of the Southern Ocean through a better understanding of seasonal cycle dynamics in the upper 1000 m.
  2. Observe decadal changes in ocean interior storage of carbon, geotraces and heat.
  3. Provide interdisciplinary post graduate student training through advanced skills development and observational technological innovation.

We will be requesting endorsement from several international programmes (e.g. SOOS, SOCCOM, CLIVAR, SOLAS, GEOTRACES, GO-SHIP and IOCCP) and invite international participation that is inline with SCALE research objectives.Ā 

GET INVOLVEDĀ ā†’

INTEGRATED SCIENTIFIC THEMES
AIR-SEA-ICE FLUXES

The exchange of gases, aerosols, heat and momentum is a key factor influencing long-term climate variability and trends. These fluxes are critical to understanding the links between carbon and climate, aerosols and albedo and the influence of terrestrial particles on ocean biogeochemistry.

BIOLOGICAL CARBON PUMP

Changes in climate are likely to affect the composition, abundance, and productivity of phytoplankton, with feedbacks that threaten the ecosystem services they provide, namely sustaining biodiversity, fueling the food web and fisheries, and mediating global climate through an altered efficiency of the biological carbon pump.

PHYSICS TO TOP PREDATORS

The Southern Ocean is subject to strong frontal (meso to sub-mesoscale) activity due to the instabilities of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Nutrient pulses associated with frontal dynamics have the ability to propagate throughout the food chain from lower trophic levels (phytoplankton) to top predators (seabirds and marine mammals).

DECADAL CHANGES IN OCEAN INTERIOR

The Meridional Overturning Circulation is a global reaching system of surface and deep ocean currents. It is the primary mechanism for the transport and storage of heat, carbon, salt, freshwater and nutrients (including geotrace elements) between ocean basins; connecting the surface ocean and atmosphere with the huge reservoir of the deep sea.

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR ENGINEERING

To advance the scientific basis for ice-going vessels, the SA Agulhas IIĀ has been the subject of full-scale engineering measurements since 2012. These measurements focus on structural dynamics of the hull and propulsion systems, wave slamming andĀ human comfort. The sensor infrastructure and advanced data analytics position the ship as an ideal platform to explore digital twin technology to assess the state and behaviour of the vessel in near real time within its operational context. These powerful platforms promise to advance education, research, innovation and industrial development related to shipping, oceans and polar research.

NATIONAL PARTNERS

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Pedro MonteiroĀ 
Sandy ThomallaĀ 
Thato Mtshali
Sarah Nicholson
Thomas J. Ryan-Keogh
Rebecca Garland
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Hans Verheye
Azwianewi Makhado
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Susanne Fietz
Alakendra Roychoudhury
Annie Bekker
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Marcello VichiĀ 
Katye AltieriĀ 
Isabelle AnsorgeĀ 
Sarah Fawcett
Peter G. Ryan
Sebastian Skatulla
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Thulani Makhalanyane
Nico de Bruyn
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Pedro MonteiroĀ 
Sandy ThomallaĀ 
Thato Mtshali
Sarah Nicholson
Thomas J. Ryan-Keogh
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Ken Findlay
David Walker
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Pierre Pistorius

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Brett Kuyper
Mike Davies-Coleman
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Warren Joubert
Johan Stander
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Ria Olivier

INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS

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Ryan Reisinger

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Marina Levy

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Sebastiaan Swart

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Emma Cavan

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Dudley Shallcross

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Eva Bucciarelli
GĆ©raldine Sarthou
HĆ©lĆØne Planquette
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Prof. Angela Knapp
Dr. Sven Kranz
Ā© SCALE 2018